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口譯工作需要注意的問題是什么?

作者:管理員發布時間:2020-03-22 16:21:35瀏覽次數:581

  譯員進行口譯工作時,需要在短時間內準確的將兩種語的講話內容準確無誤的表達出來,下面上海臻云人工翻譯公司給大家分享口譯工作需要注意的問題是什么?

  When interpreting, translators need to accurately express the speech content of the two languages in a short period of time. What are the issues that need to be paid attention to when sharing the interpretation work with you?

  一、事前準備是做好口譯的基礎

  1、 Preparation in advance is the basis of good interpretation

  接受口譯任務后,一定要做一些必要的準備工作(時間可長可短,視具體情況而定),包括語言上、技術上和心理上的準備。首先要對翻譯的內容有所了解。再則,就是找項目負責人了解情況,對項目情況熟悉了,翻譯起來自然就比較順手??谧g工作有時侯是以講課方式進行的技術交流。遇有這種情況,應對講課人的課題內容,聽眾的基本情況都有所了解,才不至于臨場慌亂。要重視和外賓的第一次見面、安排日程等活動。這種活動一般不涉及很深的技術內容,我們可以把它看作正式翻譯的一種準備。首先,你可以通過這種初次見面了解并逐漸適應外賓的語言、語調。搞翻譯的人都知道,外國人的語音、語調五花八門。比如一個講英語的代表團并不一定每個成員都來自英美國家,即使這樣,也不一定都是正宗的英國人或美國人,其中往往有亞裔、非裔或歐裔等,其口音大不相同。這就要求口譯人員不僅能聽懂標準外語,而且要能很快適應各種怪腔怪調、不規范的外語。再則,通過初步接觸,也能對談判或講課的內容有所了解(在事前沒有充分的時間進行案頭準備的情況下,這種了解十分重要),更為重要的是,這種初步接觸可以消除臨場的緊張感,為下一步正式場合的翻譯做好心理準備。另外,還有一種準備方式,效果更好,這就是和講話人共同準備,商定講話綱要,這實際上等于先打一個草稿。有些場合可以這樣做:如談判時中方要提的問題、宴會或其它比較正式的場合可以預先準備講話內容的開幕詞和祝酒辭等??谧g任務中最讓人頭疼的是講話人事先準備了講稿,照稿宣讀,而譯員對這份講稿事前又一無所知。這無異乎用口譯的方式做筆譯的工作。一旦遇到這種情況,譯員當然也不能回避,只能靠其平時的功底,盡自己最大努力來完成。

  After receiving the interpretation task, we must do some necessary preparations (the time can be long or short, depending on the specific situation), including linguistic, technical and psychological preparations. First of all, we should understand the content of translation. In addition, it is to find the person in charge of the project to understand the situation. If you are familiar with the project situation, the translation will be easier. Sometimes interpretation work is a technical exchange in the form of lectures. In this case, we should know the subject content of the lecturer and the basic information of the audience, so as not to panic on the spot. We should attach importance to the first meeting with foreign guests, scheduling and other activities. This kind of activity generally does not involve deep technical content. We can regard it as a preparation for formal translation. First of all, you can understand and gradually adapt to the language and tone of foreign guests through this first meeting. As all translators know, foreigners have a variety of pronunciation and intonation. For example, an English speaking delegation doesn't have to come from British and American countries. Even so, it doesn't have to be authentic Britons or Americans, often including Asian, African or European, with very different accents. This requires the interpreter not only to understand the standard foreign language, but also to be able to quickly adapt to all kinds of strange and irregular foreign languages. Moreover, through preliminary contact, you can also understand the contents of the negotiation or lecture (this understanding is very important when there is not enough time for desk preparation in advance). More importantly, this preliminary contact can eliminate the tension on the spot and prepare for the translation in the next formal occasion. In addition, there is a better way to prepare, that is, to prepare together with the speaker and agree on the outline of the speech, which is actually equivalent to making a draft first. In some occasions, we can do this: for example, the questions to be raised by the Chinese side during negotiations, banquets or other more formal occasions, we can prepare the opening speech and toast of the speech in advance. The most troublesome task of interpretation is that the speaker prepared the speech first and read it out according to it, while the interpreter knew nothing about the speech in advance. This is no different from the way of translation. Once encountering this kind of situation, the translator can't avoid it, and can only rely on his usual skills and try his best to complete it.

  二、編輯是做好口譯的必要環節

  2、 Editing is a necessary part of interpreting

  這里的編輯不是指文書編輯而是指譯者在聽清并理解了講話人的話語后,要能夠判斷出哪些是他真正要講的話,哪些是沒有用的、重復啰嗦的廢話,從而對其進行刪減和調整。那么,這樣做是否有悖于翻譯的忠實原則呢?不。因為,口語自有口語的特點。講話人在即席發言時,腦子里往往只有一個中心思想,但是具體表達和選詞造句時常常是想到哪說到哪。有時講話人為了闡述一個中心思想,會反復強調或用不同方式說明同一個內容。因此,口語不可能像書面語那樣嚴謹,甚至有的講話人本來就不善言詞,經常會說出一些不完整的、不知所云的話。這種情況中國人有,外國人也有。這時,譯員就要善于綜合,要在不遺漏講話基本內容的前提下,敢于刪掉那些廢話,使譯出的話語條理清楚,語意完整,自成篇章。只有這樣才能真正忠于講話人的精神實質,否則一味追求逐字逐句的照譯,反而會給人零亂、不忠的感覺。至于哪些話要譯出,哪些話要刪除,這要靠具有綜合知識的譯員去判斷。絕不能以編輯為由對講話人的話大打折扣,傷筋動骨。這不僅僅是翻譯水平問題,而且也是翻譯的職業道德問題。翻譯中適當進行編輯為的是更好地傳達講話人的精神實質,而不是為了偷工減料或回避難點。

  The editor here does not refer to the document editor, but refers to the translator who, after listening to and understanding the speaker's words, should be able to judge what he really wants to say and what is useless and repetitive nonsense, so as to delete and adjust it. So, is this against the principle of faithfulness in translation? No. Because spoken language has its own characteristics. When a speaker is making an impromptu speech, there is usually only one central idea in his mind, but when he expresses and selects words and sentences, he often thinks of what to say. Sometimes in order to explain a central idea, the speaker will repeatedly emphasize or explain the same content in different ways. Therefore, spoken language can not be as rigorous as written language, and even some speakers are not good at words, often saying some incomplete, unintelligible words. In this case, there are both Chinese and foreigners. At this time, the translator should be good at synthesis, dare to delete those nonsense without omitting the basic content of the speech, so that the translated words are clear, complete and self-contained. Only in this way can we be truly loyal to the spiritual essence of the speaker. Otherwise, if we blindly pursue word for word translation, it will give us a sense of disorder and disloyalty. As for which words need to be translated and which words need to be deleted, it depends on the translator with comprehensive knowledge to judge. Never discount the speaker's words on the basis of editors. This is not only a question of translation level, but also a question of professional ethics in translation. Proper editing in translation aims to better convey the spiritual essence of the speaker, not to cut corners or avoid difficulties.

  三、記要點是確保翻譯質量的有效手段

  3、 Keeping the main points in mind is an effective way to ensure the quality of translation

  記要點,是記講話人的講話要點而不是原講話的句式和單詞。由于口語工作的特點,需要在極短的時間內及時傳達講話人的意思,所以,要求譯員在聽懂原話的內容后立即忘掉原話的詞匯和句式,用規范的另一種語言表達出來。如果不能立即忘掉原話的單詞和句式,就容易造成譯出的語言或者是漢語式的外語,或者是洋味的漢語,使聽者感到別扭,影響交流。這里所講的記要點可以是腦記也可以是筆記。有的翻譯人員喜歡在翻譯時用筆速記,試圖把所講的內容全部記下來,以為這樣可以幫助記憶,我認為這樣反而會妨礙記憶的速度和表達的準確,因為這樣中間多了一道手續,等于把注意力分散了。當然,當一連出現好幾個數字或人名地名時,由于中外文數字表達方式不同和英文名字難記的特點,翻譯起來感到費力,所以借助筆記也是必不可少的。筆記不可少,但不宜太多。

  To remember the main points is to remember the main points of the speaker rather than the sentence patterns and words of the original speech. Due to the characteristics of oral work, it is necessary to convey the speaker's meaning in a very short time. Therefore, the interpreter is required to forget the words and sentence patterns of the original words immediately after understanding the content of the original words and express them in another standard language. If we can't immediately forget the original words and sentences, it is easy to cause the translated language or Chinese style foreign language, or foreign flavor Chinese, which makes the listener feel uncomfortable and affects communication. The main points of note taking here can be brain notes or notes. Some translators like to take shorthand when translating, trying to write down all the content they have said, thinking that it can help memory. I think it will hinder the speed of memory and the accuracy of expression, because there is an extra procedure in the middle, which is equivalent to distraction. Of course, when several numbers or people's names appear in a row, it is difficult to translate because of the different ways of number expression in Chinese and foreign languages and the difficulty of English names, so it is necessary to use notes. Notes are necessary, but not too much.

  四、樹立信心是做好口譯的保證

  4、 Confidence is the guarantee of good interpretation

  不論什么場合,都要相信自己的翻譯能力。如果沒有信心,翻譯過程中遇到幾句聽不明白的話,就會更加慌亂,越慌則越譯不好。聽不懂時,要實事求是,不能不懂裝懂,憑感覺亂發揮。多問兩次并不丟人,千萬不能以為多問了顯得水平低、丟面子,因而當問不問,造成錯誤。有時在翻譯時漏譯了幾句,在譯下面一段時因為上下文的關系又想起來了,這時可以直接補進去,而不必專門向聽眾說明。這種情況,很多譯員可能都遇到過,特別是在外賓講得興奮、一口氣講很長時,或者是由于翻譯時間長,譯員腦力疲勞時容易發生這種情況。說明,反而容易分散聽眾的注意力,影響聽眾的情緒,當然也就影響了翻譯的整體效果。

  Believe in your translation ability no matter where you are. If you don't have confidence, you will be more flustered if you encounter a few sentences that you can't understand. The more flustered you are, the worse your translation will be. When you can't understand it, you should be practical and realistic. You can't pretend to understand it without knowing it, and play it by feeling. It's not disgraceful to ask twice more. You should not think that asking more is low level and disgraceful. Therefore, if you don't ask, you will make mistakes. Sometimes a few sentences are missed in the translation. When the next paragraph is translated, it is recalled because of the context. At this time, it can be added directly without explaining to the audience. Many translators may have encountered this situation, especially when the foreign guests are excited, speak for a long time at a time, or because of the long translation time, the interpreters are prone to mental fatigue. It shows that it is easy to distract the audience's attention and affect the audience's mood, which, of course, affects the overall effect of translation.

  五、廣博的知識是做好口譯的前提

  5、 Extensive knowledge is the premise of good interpretation

  口譯工作,涉及面很廣,有時事先無法預料。這就需要我們平時多注意知識的積累??萍挤g的譯員一般比較重視專業知識的學習,但是,搞科技翻譯只有專業知識和翻譯知識是不夠的,都說翻譯是“雜家”,這話千真萬確。翻譯人員對百科知識不需要很精很深,但是要博、要雜。

  Interpretation involves a wide range of work, sometimes unpredictably. This requires us to pay more attention to the accumulation of knowledge. Generally speaking, translators of scientific and technological translation attach more importance to the study of professional knowledge. However, it is not enough to only have professional knowledge and translation knowledge in scientific and technological translation. They all say that translation is a "miscellany", which is absolutely true. Translators don't need to be very precise and deep in encyclopedia knowledge, but they need to be broad and complicated.

  六、注意禮儀是對譯員的基本要求

  6、 Paying attention to etiquette is the basic requirement for translators

  此外口譯人員也會遇到這種情況:出外考察和訪問時,外國政要接見中國代表團的講話,而這種講話往往是單向的,很難指望講話人會按翻譯要求停頓,尤其是講到感興趣的地方會口惹懸河,滔滔不絕,結果聽眾不知所云,翻譯無能為力。因為外賓不懂得翻譯的難處,也沒有講話停頓的習慣。為了避免這種情況,譯員要盡可能預先向講話人提示。萬一講話人總是忘記停頓,譯員也不宜過多插話要求停頓而表現出不安或不滿,這樣會有失禮貌,打斷講話人思路,尤其是對年長者或政府要人更要謹慎??谧g工作是一種艱苦而細致的勞動,不但要求譯員有較高的外語水平和熟練的翻譯技巧,同時要求譯員有較淵博的科學文化知識。因此希望有志于成為口譯員的備考者們,在努力提高翻譯技巧的同時,不要忘記在其他方面知識的吸收。

  In addition, interpreters will also encounter this situation: when they go abroad for investigation and visit, foreign politicians will receive the speech of the Chinese delegation, which is usually one-way, and it is difficult to expect that the speaker will stop according to the translation requirements, especially when talking about the places of interest, which will cause trouble and eloquence, resulting in the audience's ignorance and inability to translate. Because foreign guests don't understand the difficulties of translation and don't have the habit of speaking pause. In order to avoid this situation, the interpreter should remind the speaker in advance as much as possible. In case the speaker always forgets to pause, the interpreter should not intervene too much to ask for a pause and show uneasiness or dissatisfaction, which will be impolite and interrupt the speaker's thinking, especially for the elderly or the important people of the government. Interpretation is a hard and meticulous work, which requires not only a high level of foreign language and skilled translation skills, but also a profound knowledge of science and culture. Therefore, I hope that candidates who are willing to become interpreters will not forget to absorb knowledge in other aspects while trying to improve translation skills.

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