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筆譯的基本翻譯技巧有什么?

作者:管理員發布時間:2020-03-12 23:30:54瀏覽次數:935

  翻譯的原文和譯文在表達上不能有偏差的,但是中英文的語言差異,譯員需要在筆譯過程中對譯文做一些處理,下面上海臻云人工翻譯機構給大家分享筆譯的基本翻譯技巧有什么?

  There should be no deviation between the original translation and the translation. However, due to the language differences between Chinese and English, translators need to deal with the translation in the translation process. What are the basic translation skills shared by Shanghai Zhenyun artificial translation agency?


  一、增譯主語
  1、 Added translation subject

  由于英文表達習慣,常常用一些抽象名詞作為主語,而中文的表達習慣則需要把抽象變為具體;英文中常常會為了避免重復而多用介詞,中文則不怕重復,一個詞會用上好幾遍;英語中的復數名詞譯為漢語時,常常加入這些、各種、種種等,要視具體語境情況而定。

  Because of the English expression habit, some abstract nouns are often used as subjects, while the Chinese expression habit needs to change the abstract into concrete; English often uses prepositions to avoid repetition, while Chinese is not afraid of repetition, and a word can be used several times; when the plural nouns in English are translated into Chinese, these, various, various, etc. are often added, depending on the specific context 。

  二、增譯謂語
  2、 Add predicate

  英語中出現兩個或多個相同謂語時,常常會省略,以使句子不那么贅余。而中文中則要譯出來,使其表達更加地道;英文中的介詞短語譯為中文時往往要增譯動詞;有些英語中的名詞在譯為中文時要加入相應的動詞,使其意義更加完整,表達更加明確。

  When two or more same predicates appear in English, they are often omitted to make the sentence less redundant. While in Chinese, it is necessary to translate it to make its expression more authentic; when translating prepositional phrases into Chinese, it is often necessary to add translation verbs; when translating some nouns into Chinese, it is necessary to add corresponding verbs to make their meaning more complete and express more clearly.

  三、時間狀語
  3、 Adverbial of time

  1. 時間狀語常??梢灾苯臃g,一般譯到主句前。

  1. Adverbials of time can often be translated directly, usually before the main sentence.

  2.有的時間狀語從句引導詞除了表示時間以外,還會附帶條件性,所以在翻譯的時候要譯出條件關系。

  2. Some time adverbial clause leaders not only express time, but also attach conditionality, so they should translate conditionality.

  四、原因狀語
  4、 Causative adverbial

  1. 英語中的狀語位置較為靈活,既可以放在主句前也可置于主句后,而中文表達常常遵循“前因后果”的順序,所以在翻譯的時候也要注意調整語序。

  1. The adverbial position in English is more flexible, which can be placed before or after the main sentence, while Chinese expression often follows the order of "cause and effect", so we should also pay attention to adjusting the word order in translation.

  2.但上述情況也不是絕對的,原因狀語也可放在主句后,這樣也對應了漢語中的結構“之所以……是因為”。

  2. But the above situation is not absolute. The reason adverbial can also be placed after the subject sentence, which also corresponds to the structure "why Because ".

  五、目的狀語
  5、 Objective adverbial

  1. 總的來說,目的狀語放在主句前翻譯,把說明情況的主句放在后面。

  1. Generally speaking, the target adverbial should be translated before the main sentence and the main sentence explaining the situation should be translated after it.

  2. 目的狀語也可譯在主句后邊,表示以免、以防、使得、生怕等等。

  2. The target adverbial can also be translated after the main sentence to indicate avoidance, avoidance, causation, fear, etc.

  六、譯成漢語的主動句
  6、 Active sentences translated into Chinese

  1. 一般被動句的主語是無生命的主語,翻譯時常常要將原文主語譯為漢語中的主語。

  1. The subject of a general passive sentence is an inanimate subject, which is often translated into Chinese.

  2.主語賓語顛倒位置

  2. Subject object reversed position

  一般英語中當動作主體的詞前加上by時或由介詞短語構成時,那么在譯文中by后邊的動作主體詞或該介詞短語中的名詞就要充當主語,賓語則是原文中的主語。

  In general English, when by is added before the action subject or is composed of prepositional phrases, then the action subject word or noun in the prepositional phrase after by should act as the subject in the translation, and the object is the subject in the original text.

  3.增加主語

  3. Add subject

  一些被動句在譯為主動句時要增加一些主語,比如我們、人們、大家等等。

  When translating some passive sentences into active ones, we should add some subjects, such as us, people, everyone and so on.

  七、譯成漢語中的無主句
  7、 Translating into Chinese sentences without subject

  漢語無主句較多,也是我們的思維方式和說話表達習慣等因素有關。很多情況下,我們和處于同一背景生長環境下的人聊天,都不需要說主語,但是對方大多數情況下,都能理解你的意思。

  There are many Chinese sentences without subject, which is also related to our thinking mode, speaking habits and other factors. In many cases, we don't need to speak the subject when chatting with people in the same background, but most of the time, the other party can understand what you mean.

  八、譯成被動句
  8、 Translation into passive sentences

  并不一定是所有英文中的被動句都譯為中文的主動句。當一些被動句著重在強調被動意義,這時突出的是被動的動作,那么這種情況下就要仍然譯為被動句。在漢語中,要用這些語言表示被動意義,比如:被、受、遭、讓、給、由、把、得到、受到、加以、得以、為……所、由……來”等等。

  It is not necessarily that all passive sentences in English are translated into active sentences in Chinese. When some passive sentences emphasize the passive meaning and the passive actions are highlighted, they should still be translated into passive sentences. In Chinese, we should use these languages to express passive meaning, such as be, receive, be, give, give, by, hold, get, receive, give, get, for By Come on, "wait.

  對于包含技術性的翻譯來說,就像學習自行車一樣,總要經歷跌跌撞撞的時刻,最后是不知不覺地學會了,翻譯也一樣,大家一定要多多練習,掌握必要的解題技巧,反復琢磨;當然具體情況具體分析,翻譯不可能會有一個多么固定完美的標準答案,都教授給大家整理了翻譯步驟:

  For technical translation, just like learning a bicycle, you always have to experience a moment of stumbling and bumping. At last, you unconsciously learn it. Translation is also the same. You must practice a lot, master the necessary problem-solving skills, and think about it again and again. Of course, the specific situation of specific analysis, translation can't have a fixed and perfect standard answer, all of which are taught to you The translation steps are sorted out:

  1.通讀全句,確定主干,劃分意群。

  1. Read through the whole sentence, determine the main line and divide the meaning group.

  2.選擇詞義,調整語序,適當加工。

  2. Select the meaning of words, adjust the word order, and properly process them.

  在這一步驟指導下,在掌握一些翻譯技巧的基礎上要親自動手動嘴翻譯,切忌感覺翻譯出來了就對答案,這樣不會有長進的,只有把翻譯不好的地方多多琢磨,想想如何在下次能夠翻譯的更貼切一些。

  Under the guidance of this step, on the basis of mastering some translation skills, we need to translate manually by ourselves. We must not feel that the answer will be right after the translation, so that there will be no progress. We have to think more about the bad translation and think about how to translate more appropriately next time.

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